European Journal of Sport Science , vol. Subscribe to Table of Contents Alerts. The included studies are summarised in Table 1. In a recent review, lean individuals showed a small reduction in acylated ghrelin after exercise, whilst total PYY and total GLP-1 showed small increases [ 15 ]. Including baseline acylated ghrelin concentrations and BMI into a multiple metaregression model had little effect on the results; the slope of regression became slightly more negative so that the standardised reduction in acylated ghrelin for exercise versus control was 0. Inclusion Criteria For inclusion, studies were required to meet the following criteria: Appetite, energy intake and PYY responses to energy-matched continuous exercise and submaximal high intensity exercise.
Mean BMIs were pooled from studies collected in the current review together with those reported for lean individuals in a recent review by Schubert et al. Heterogeneity was explored using a -test, -square statistic, and the tau-squared statistic. Two members of the research team JAD and KD independently selected the studies for inclusion in the meta-analysis and later compared notes to reach a mutual consensus.
Four studies used exercise which was aerobic in nature [ 1322 — 24 ], and two compared aerobic exercise with two variations of high intensity exercise [ 2122 ].
Kevin Deighton – Leeds Beckett University
Frontiers in Physiology https: Alex Griffiths Substrate utilisation deightton carbohydrate supplementation in hypoxia.
However, after acute exercise, lean individuals have shown no sex difference in responses of or acylated ghrelin [ 31 ].
Dr Kevin Deighton
A standardised mean difference SMD is often reported. Future Science OA https: Further still, studies varied in meal provision standardised, ad libitum, or no meal after exercise.
Kevin has also developed an interest in extreme environments, as demonstrated by his role as a research lead for the Dhaulagiri Medical Research Expedition in View at Google Scholar W. Energy intake, expenditure and balance during a pre-season.
For inclusion, studies were required to meet the following criteria: It has been hypothesised that exercise could influence acylated ghrelin differently in obese males and females. Understanding the responses of appetite regulatory hormones to exercise and consequently the effect they may have on energy intake and appetite could enhance the understanding of the role of exercise in weight control.
Additionally, studies differed by exercising participants in both fasting and fed states.
BMI was the predictor in metaregression for AG. Study Selection Two members of the research team JAD and KD independently selected the studies for inclusion in the meta-analysis and later compared notes to reach a mutual consensus.
We recognise that meta-analyses are not immune from statistical power-related issues and that the pooling of data tehsis such a small number of studies may still provide relatively low statistical precision wide confidence interval for pooled effect. The magnitude of this reduction was greater for higher mean BMIs pooled metaregression slope: For example, despite finding substantial heterogeneity amongst studies in which ghrelin and GLP-1 were measured, precise analyses such as one for the presence of outliers could not be performed due to the small number of studies.
dfighton Inclusion Criteria For inclusion, studies were required to meet the following criteria: This analysis was only performed for acylated ghrelin as there were not enough studies reporting data for total PYY or total GLP-1 to obtain sufficiently precise and meaningful estimations of metaregression slope.
BMI thfsis used as a moderator in a metaregression analysis methods-of-moments modelto determine whether BMI could explain the variation in effect size values seen between studies for acylated ghrelin concentrations [ 17 ].
Details of the search strategy are provided in the Supplementary Material available at http: Subscribe to Table of Contents Alerts.